Metadata is the data about data: Metadata is what allows computers to "see" and retrieve data, move it from place to place, compress it and expand it, connect data with other data, and so on. The title of this essay refers to the ongoing modern struggle between the visual data, i.
Metadating stream tv later want to control images: The former can be said to "resist" all these attempts. This struggle have intensified and became more important in a computer age --
Metadating stream tv important because the ease with which computers copy, modify, and Metadating stream tv images allows humans to daily multiply the number of images available.
This is already demonstrated by a number of successful art projects that focus on new ways to describe, organize and access large numbers of visual records. Importantly, these projects propose not only new interfaces but also new types of imagesor,
Metadating stream tv Metadating stream tv, "records" of human individual and collective experience: In
Metadating stream tv, in terms of its creative and "generative" potential, "metadating the image" paradigm means following four related directions: Ancient and modern cultures developed rich and precise systems to describe oral and written communication: Metadating stream tv and thesauruses help us to create new texts; the search engines and the ever present "find While we do have some concepts such as Panofsky's iconography and iconology, or Pierce's index -- symbol -- icon, they do not approach the richness, the generality, and the precision of concepts available to describe the texts.
While In the last four decades there have been many attempts to import concepts from literary Metadating stream tv and linguistics into art history and visual culture studies, these imported concepts have not been widely adopted. Often the professionals working in some cultural field develop their own terms and taxonomies that are more precise than the terms used by the theorists studying the same field from the outside.
the case of images, there are a few professional practices we can look at
Metadating stream tv for instance, Hollywood cinematography or Bauhaus art education -- but overall, the image taxonomies used in various contemporary professional fields are also quite limited. Stock photography agencies divide millions of photographs into
Metadating stream tv few dozen categories, with names such as "joy," "business," and" achievement".
Graphic designers their clients typically use even more limited range of categories to describe their In short, the way we usually deal with the problem of image description is Metadating stream tv reduce the image to one or a few verbal labels called "keywords" in software applications.
In other words, we use natural languages English,
Metadating stream tv, Russian, etc. Interestingly, when modern theorists have tried to address the questions of visual signification, they Metadating stream tv ended up performing similar reduction. This tendency in modern thought even received a special label -- "verbocentrism. In Rhetoric of the Image 1 Barthes investigated significations conveyed by the objects and their arrangement and in fact disregarded any contribution to meaning by
Metadating stream tv picture itself.
While semioticians, art and art critics were going back and forth between stating, a la Barthes, that images do not have meanings without a linguistic support and, on the contrary, searching for a unique pictorial language, these Metadating stream tv debates concerning what happens inside a single image became now somewhat irrelevant.
Computerization of media society introduced a new set of conceptual and practical challenges. Forget our inability to understand and describe how a
Metadating stream tv image may signify this or that -- we now have to worry about more banal problems: Of course, the questions of visual semiotics and hermeneutics still matter -- but they need to be re-calibrated.
Metadating stream tv cultural unit is no longer a single image but a large scale structured or unstructured such as the Web image database. This shift becomes clearly visible if we how visual epistemology works in Close-Up Antonioni,Blade Runner Scott,and Minority Report Spielberg, The protagonists of the first two films are looking for truth within a single photographic image.
Panning and zooming into this image reveals new about reality: In contrast, the protaganist of Minority Report is looking for truth outside a Metadating stream tv image: The message is clear: How did computer scientists and the image industries responded to the dramatic increase in the amount of media data available?
The response has been to gradually shift towards more structured ways to organize and describe this data. Metadating stream tv gradual shift occurs in two complementary ways. One involves adding metadata to all the media data already accumulated during the last
Metadating stream tv of fifty years of media society. Slides, photographs, recordings of television programs, typewritten records stored in numerous Metadating stream tv, state, university, and corporate libraries -- all of these are being digitized and stored in Metadating stream tv databases with the metadata usually entered manually.
Often the reports on these efforts read as though they came from fiction by Borges or Lem: The second is assure that any media data generated in the
Metadating stream tv -- from a page of text on the Web to an image snapped by a cell phone camera to a TV show -- will contain "high-level" metadata. MPEG-4 provides an abstract language to describe such a composition.
MPEG-7 represents the next logical step in a gradual transition towards structured media data that comes with machine and code readable descriptions of its structure and contents. MPEG-7 is Metadating stream tv as "a standard for describing the multimedia content data that supports some degree Metadating stream tv interpretation of the information's meaning, which can be passed or accessed by, a device a computer code.
MPEG-7 and similar schemes call for the inclusion of high-level metadata along with the media data that will enable computers to automatically process this data in a variety of data. But where would this metadata come from? I have briefly discussed above our overall tendency to describe images in terms Metadating stream tv verbal labels. Can computers at least generate such labels automatically?
Or maybe they would even finally Metadating stream tv us describe image with more precision natural languages? Computerization creates a promise that images that traditionally resisted the human attempts to adequately describe them will be finally conquered. After all, we now easily find out that a particular digital image contains so many pixels and so many colors; we can also generate Metadating stream tv stream tv histogram in Photoshop 7.
In short, by turning an image into a mathematical object digital computers gave us a new metalanguage for images -- numbers. Building on such simple statistics, a computer can also tease out some indications of image structure and semantics -- for instance, it can easily automatically find Metadating stream tv edges in photograph and sometimes even segment it into parts corresponding to individual objects.
Yet this promise may be only the illusion. The metadata provided by a Metadating stream tv database Metadating stream tv I use to organize my digital photos
More generally, after almost fifty years of research, computer vision systems still can only recognize objects in photographs or video when they know what these objects would Metadating stream tv beforehand -- presented with an arbitrary image, they become "blind.
In short, while computerization made the image acquisition, storage, manipulation, and transmission much more efficient than before, it did not help us much in dealing with its side effects -- how to more efficiently describe and access the vast quantities of digital Metadating stream tv being generated by digital cameras and scanners, by the endless "digital archives" and "digital libraries" projects around the world, by the sensors and the museums.
Although standards such as MPEG-7 would allow computers to automatically process visual data based on metadata, there still remains a basic and very time consuming task: In other words, computers can help us but only after we help them first by feeding image descriptions. The constantly growing quantities of media data which are already available in numerous public and private various archives and databases or which can be generated on purpose by storing all access logs of a Web site, by continuously recording the output of some sensors or video cameras, and so on represents not only the problem to be solved if it can be solved at all but also a unique artistic opportunity.
Non-essential is stripped away; essential is recorded. Narrative arts have been always limited Metadating stream tv the capacities of the receiver i. Throughout history, the first capacity remained more or
Metadating stream tv the same: But the capacity of storage media recently changed dramatically. The same applies for audio only, or for text. This applies to granularity of the granularity of visual experience, and also to what can be called "social granularity" i.
In regards to time, it is now possible to record, store and index years of digital video. Although it presents combined experiences of many people rather than the detailed account of a single person's life, the work by Spielberg's Shoa Foundation is a relevant here as it shows what can be done with the new scale in video recording Metadating stream tv indexing.
The Shoa Foundation assembled and now makes accessible massive amount Metadating stream tv video interviews with the Holocaust survivors: The examples of new finer visual granularity are provided by projects of Luc Courchesne and Jeffrey Shaw which both aim at Metadating stream tv o moving image recordings of visual reality.
This game that is better referred to as "social simulator" models ongoing relationship Metadating stream tv between a number of characters. Although the Metadating stream tv model itself can Metadating stream tv compete with the modeling of human psychology in modern narrative fiction, since The Metadating stream tv is not a static representation of selected moments in the characters' lives but a dynamic simulation running in real timewe can Metadating stream tv any time choose to follow any of the characters.
While the rest of the characters are off-screen, they continue to "live" and change. In short, just as with the new granularity of time the new granularity of visual experience, the social universe no longer needs to be sampled but can be modeled as one Metadating stream tv. Together, these new abilities open up vast new vistas for aesthetic experimentation.
They give us an unprecedented opportunity to address one of the key goals of art -- a
Metadating stream tv of reality and the human social and subjective experience of it -- in new ways. In other words, what for the industry and computer science are difficult questions which need urgent solutions instead should be viewed as possibilities to play with. For instance, if it already possible to record and
Metadating stream tv practically unlimited number of still and moving images of one's existence, what kind of interface can we use to organize and navigate these images?
Or, given that we now can use database software to classify, link, and retrieve images and image sequences along with other media, how can a database structure be used to represent the life of a modern city, Metadating stream tv history of a place, etc. In short, behind the problem of visual metadata that became more urgent because the new scale of media data available there an exiting promise -- the promise to rethink the nature of representation.
Has the revolution in the scale of available storage been accompanied by the new ideas about how such Metadating stream tv recording may function? It is not hard to see that of the commercial and academic research into new structures and interfaces for organizing and accessing media Metadating stream tv takes for granted commercially supported media formats and media conventions the way they exist today- photographs, consumer video, professional television programs, the like.
Given that most of this research is geared towards existing applications by the industry, government agencies, and the military, this orientation towards media formats and conventions the way they exist today can be expected.
However, some research projects are trying to re-invent media and their uses
Metadating stream tv what exists today. Metadating stream tv stream tv projects come from different research paradigms that are not tied
Metadating stream tv to broadcasting and commercial video production industries the way MPEG community is.
Since the beginning the s, working within the paradigms of Computer Augmented Reality, Ubiquitous Computing, and Software Agents at places such as MIT Media Lab and Xerox Park, computers scientists advanced the of Metadating
Metadating stream tv tv computer as an unobtrusive but omni-present device which automatically records
Metadating stream tv indexes all inter-personal communications and other user's activities.
A typical early scenario envisioned in the early s involved microphones and video cameras situated in the business office which record everything taking place, along with indexing software which makes possible a quick search through the years worth of recordings.
More recently the paradigm has expanded to include capturing and indexing all kinds of experiences of many people. For instance, a DARPA-sponsored research project at Carnegie-Mellon University called Experience-on-Demand which begun in aims to "developed tools, techniques, and systems that allow users to capture complete records of Metadating stream tv experience and to share them in collaborative settings. Given that a regular email program already automatically keeps a copy of all and received emails, and allows to sort and search through these emails, and that a typical mailing list archive Web site similarly Metadating stream tv to search through of dialogs between many we can see that in the course of text communication this paradigm has already been realized.
However, the difficulties of segmenting and indexing audio and visual media already discussed above are what delays realization of these ideas in practice in relation to other media. But the recording in Metadating stream tv itself is already can be easily achieved: What is important in this paradigm -- and this applies for computer media in general -- is that storage media became active. That is, the operations of searching, sorting, filtering, indexing classifying which before were the strict domain of human intelligence, become automated.
A human no longer needs to go through hundreds of hours of video surveillance to locate Metadating stream tv part where something happens -- a software program can do this automatically, and much more quickly. Similarly, a human listener no longer needs to go through years of audio recordings to locate the important conversation Metadating stream tv a particular Metadating stream tv --
Metadating stream tv can do this quickly.
Metadating stream tv can also locate all other conversations with the same person, or other conversations where his name was mentioned, and so on. To refer to the famous story by Borges, not only can Metadating stream tv make maps as big or larger than the territory, but they can also be used to make new types of maps impossible before.
Instead of compressing reality to what the
Metadating stream tv
Metadating stream tv the Metadating stream tv moments, very large chunks on everyday life can be recorded, and then put under the control of software. I imagine for instance a "novel" which consists from complete email
Metadating stream tv of thousand of characters, plus a special interface that the reader will use to interact with this information.
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In the case of images, there are a few professional practices we can look at -- for instance, Hollywood cinematography or Bauhaus art education -- but overall, the image taxonomies used in various contemporary professional fields are also quite limited.
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