The culture of Asia encompasses the collective diverse customs and traditions of art, architecture, music, literature, philosophy, politics and religion that have been practiced and maintained by the numerous ethnic groups of the continent of Asia since prehistory. Identification of a specific culture of Asia or universal elements among the colossal diversity that has emanated from multiple cultural spheres and three of the four ancient River valley civilizations is complicated.
However, the continent is commonly divided into six geographic sub-regions, that are characterized by perceivable commonalities, like religion, language and relative ethnic homogeneity.
As the largest, most populous continent and rich in resources, Asia is home to several of the world's oldest civilizations, that produced the majority of the great religious systems, the oldest known recorded myths and codices on ethics and morality. However, Asia's enormous size separates the various civilizations by great distances and hostile environments, such as deserts and mountain ranges. Yet by challenging and overcoming these distances, trade and commerce gradually developed a truly universal, Pan-Asian character.
Inter-regional trade was the driving and cohesive force, by which cultural elements and ideas spread the various sub-regions via the vast road network and the many sea routes. Asia's various modern cultural and religious spheres correspond roughly with the principal centres of civilisation.
West Asia and Central Asia have their cultural roots in the pioneering civilisations of the Fertile Crescent and Mesopotamia. Commercial interaction with South Asia eventually lead to the adoption of essential cultural elements from India and to a lesser extent from China.
Nonetheless, North Asian religious and spiritual traditions eventually diffused into more comprehensive systems such as Tibetan Buddhism that developed its own unique characteristics e. China has occupied the prominent, central role in East Asia for most of recorded history, as it "deeply influenced the culture of the peripheral countries and also drew them into a China-centered [ Highly ritualized, the Imperial
Dating in different cultures articles of association Tributary Systembased on the religious and philosophical idea of submission to celestial harmony  was also recognized by nations beyond, in Southeast Asia in particular.
Defining East Asian cultural characteristics are the Chinese language influences and traditional writings systems,  as well as shared religious and ethic ideas, that are represented by the Three teachings BuddhismTaoism and Confucianism. Historically used throughout the region and it is still in use by ethnic Chinese throughout the world, as well as in Japan and to a small and waning extent in Dating in different cultures articles of association Korea.
However, as Chinese writing concepts were passed on to Korea, Japan and Vietnam, these nations developed their own characteristic writing systems as the cultural expression of their language families, such as Vietnamesean Austro-Asiatic
Dating in different cultures articles of association ; Japanesea Japonic language ; and Korean, a Koreanic language.
Whereas Chinese is still found in the historical roots of many borrowed words, modern Chinese has been influenced by other Asian
Dating in different cultures articles of association, such as by modern technical and political terms created in Japan to represent western concepts known as Wasei-kango. Apart from the unifying influence of ConfucianismTaoismChinese characters and numerous other Chinese cultural influencesEast Asian national customs, architecture, literature, cuisines, traditional music, performing arts and crafts also have developed from many independent and local concepts, they have grown and diversified as many rank among the most refined expressions of aesthetic, artistic and philosophical ideas in the world.
Notable among others are Japanese gardens and landscape planning, Heian literatureVietnamese Dating in different cultures articles of association puppetry and the artifacts of the Son culture.
Due to the high quality of its arts, crafts, metallurgy and buildings, the accomplishments in urban planning, governance, trade and technology etc. The Indus Valley Civilisation on the other hand has only come to light by means of 20th century archaeology.
Scholars, who employ several periodization models argue over whether South Asian tradition is consciously committed to the Harappan culture.
Declining climatic conditions, aridification and population displacement Indo-Aryan migration are regarded as to have caused Dating in different cultures articles of association fatal disruption of the Harappa culture, that was superseded by the rural Vedic culture. The late Vedic political progress results in urbanization, strict social hierarchy, commercial and military rivalries among the settlers, that have spread all over the entire sub-continent.
The Vedas constitute the oldest work of Sanskrit literature and form the basis of religious, ethic and philosophic ideas in South Asia. They are widely, but not exclusively regarded the basics and scriptural authority on worship, rituals, ceremonies, sacrifices, meditation, philosophy and spiritual knowledge for the future Hindu and Buddhist cosmology.
Commentaries and discussions also focus on the development of valid political ideas and concepts of societal progress and ethic conformity. These arguably represent the furthest reaching, most profound and permanent South Asian ideas on other cultural spheres. Afghanistan and Pakistan are situated at the western periphery of South Asia, where the cultural character has been made by both, Persiaa civilization rooted in Mesopotamia and the Indosphere.
Its two eastern regions of Punjab and Sindh share cultural links to Northwest India. Bangladesh and the Indian state of West Bengal share a common heritage and culture based on the Bengali language. The Culture of India is diverse and a complex mixture of many influences. Nepal is culturally linked to both India and Tibet and the varied ethnic groups of the country share many of the festivals and cultural traditions used and celebrated in North and East India and Tibet.
Nepalithe Dating in different cultures articles of association language of Nepal uses the Devanagari alphabet which is also used to write many North Indian languages. Tibetan Buddhism is the dominant religion in Bhutan and the Tibetan alphabet is used to write Dzongkhathe dominant language of Bhutan. There is a cultural and linguistic divide between North and South India. Sri Lanka is culturally tied to both India and Southeast Asia. Cultural festivals, aspects of its cuisine and Theravada Buddhismthe dominant religion in Sri Lanka, show a Southeast Asian affinity.
The main languages of Afghanistan are Pashto and Dari. The term Indianised Kingdoms is a designation for numerous Southeast Asian political units, that had to a varying degree adopted most aspects of India's statecraft, administration, art, epigraphy, writing and architecture. The religions HinduismBuddhism and Islam gradually diffused into local cosmology. Nonetheless, the Southeast Asian nations have very diversely adapted to these cultural stimuli and evolved their distinct sophisticated expression in lifestyle, the visual arts and most notably in architectural accomplishments, such as Angkor Wat in Cambodia and Borobudur in Indonesia.
Buddhist culture has a lasting and significant impact in mainland Indochina nations Burma, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia and Vietnam ; most Buddhists in Indochina practice Theravada Buddhism.
In the case of Vietnam, it is also influenced much by Confucianism and the culture of China. Myanmar has also been exposed to Indian cultural influences. Before the 14th century, Hinduism and Buddhism were the dominant religions of Southeast Asia. Thereafter, Islam became dominant in Indonesia, Malaysia and Brunei.
Southeast Asia has also had a lot of Western influence due to the lasting legacy of colonialism. One example is the Philippines which has been heavily influenced by America and Spain, with Christianity Catholicism as the dominant religion.
East Timor also demonstrates Portuguese influence through colonialism, as it is a predominantly Christian nation. A common feature Dating in different cultures articles of association in different cultures articles of association around the region are stilt houses. These houses are elevated on stilts so that water can easily pass below them in case of a flood. Another shared feature is rice paddy agriculture, which originated Southeast Asia thousands of years ago.
Dance drama is also a very important feature of the culture, utilizing movements of the hands and feet perfected over thousands of years. Furthermore, the arts Dating in different cultures articles of association literature of Southeast Asia is very distinctive as some have been influenced by IndianHinduChineseBuddhistand Islamic literature. Western Asia must be distinguished from the Middle Easta more recent Eurocentric term, that also includes parts of Northern Africa.
In addition, the Jewish origins of Christianityalong with the many cultural contributions from both Jews and Arabs in Europe, meant that West Asian culture had left a lasting impact on Western civilization as well. At its north-western end, Armenia and Georgia have an unmistakable Christian tradition, while shares a large Christian and a large Muslim community.
Many Middle Eastern countries encompass huge deserts where nomadic people live to this day. West Asian cuisine is immensely rich and diverse. The literature is also immensely rich with ArabicJewishPersianand Turkish dominating. KazakhstanKyrgyzstanTajikistanUzbekistan and Turkmenistan. However, Afghanistan is sometimes included. Its strategic and historic position around the East-West axis and the major trading routes guaranteed a steady influx of ideas and conflicting notions of tribalism and traditionalism.
However, the region was conquered and dominated by a variety of cultures, such as the MongolsPersiansTatarsRussiansSarmatians. As some Central Asian areas have been inhabited by nomadic people, numerous urban centers have developed in a
Dating in different Dating in different cultures articles of association articles of association local character.
For most part, North Asia more widely known as Siberia is considered to be made up of the Asian part of Russia The geographic region of Siberia was the historical land of the Tatars in the Siberia Khanate.
However Russian expansion essentially undermined this and thus today it is under Russian rule. There are roughly 40 million people living in North Asia and the majority is now Ethnic Russians while Indigenous Siberians have become a minority in North Asia. Asia is home to countless grandiose and iconic historic constructions, Dating in different cultures articles of association religious structures, castles and fortifications or palaces.
However, after several millennia, many of the greatest buildings have been destroyed or dismantled such as the Ziggurats of Mesopotamia, most of the Great Wall of ChinaGreek and Hellenistic temples or the royal cities of Persia. Chinese architecture has taken shape in East Asia over many centuries as the structural principles have remained largely unchanged, the main changes being only the decorative details. An important feature in Chinese architecture is its emphasis on Dating in different cultures articles of association and bilateral symmetry, which signifies balance.
Bilateral symmetry and the articulation of buildings are found everywhere in China, from palace complexes to humble farmhouses. Indian architecture is that vast tapestry of production of the Indian Subcontinent that encompasses a multitude of expressions over space and time, transformed by the forces of history considered unique to the sub-continent, sometimes destroying, but most of the time absorbing.
The result is an evolving range of architectural production that nonetheless retains a certain amount of continuity across history.
The Indonesian architectute reflects the diversity of culturalhistorical and
Dating in different cultures articles of association influences that have shaped Dating in different cultures articles of association as a whole.
It ranges from native Dating in different cultures articles of association architecture, Hindu-Buddhist temples, colonial architecture, to modern architecture. Indonesian vernacular architecture is called rumah adat. The houses hold social significance in society and demonstrate local ingenuity in their relations to environment and spatial organisation. Hindu-Buddhist temple monument called Dating in different cultures articles of associationwith the best example are Borobudur massive stone mandala-stupa and Prambanan Hindu temple dedicated to Trimurti gods.
By the 16th century, the Portuguese followed by the Dutch colonize Indonesian archipelago, and developed European architecture technique and developed colonial architecture. Attention to aesthetics and the surroundings is given, natural materials are preferred and artifice is generally being avoided. Impressive wooden castles and temples, some of them years old, stand embedded in the natural contours of the local topography.
Various cultural influences, notably Chinese, Indian and Europeans,
Dating in different cultures articles of association a major role in forming Malay architecture. The ancient architecture of the region of the Tigris—Euphrates river system dates back to the 10th millennium BC and lead to the development of urban planning, the courtyard house, and ziggurats. Kiln-burnt Dating in different cultures articles of association were coated with a vitreous enamel for purposes of decoration and bitumen functioned as cement.
Palaces or temples were constructed on terraces as rooms usually grouped round quadrangles, with large doorways and the roofs rested on richly ornamented columns. Middle Eastern dance has various styles and has spread to the West in the form known as bellydancing. In the Punjab region of India and PakistanBhangra dance bhangra dance is very popular. The bhangra is a celebration of the harvest.
The people dance to the beat of a drum while singing and dancing. In Southeast Asiadance is an integral part of the culture; the styles of dance vary from region to region and island to island. Traditional styles of dance have evolved in Thailand Burma.
Martial arts figure prominently in many Asian cultures, and the first known traces of martial arts date from the Xia Dynasty of ancient China from over years ago. Some of the best known styles of martial arts in the world were developed in East Asia, such as karate and judo from Japan, taekwondo from Korea and the various styles of Chinese martial arts known collectively as kung fu.
In addition, popular styles of wrestling have originated in Turkey and Mongolia. Development of Asian martial arts continues today as newer styles are created.
Sacking culture is a sociological concept for a setting in which rape is pervasive and normalized due to societal attitudes round gender and sexuality. Entire societies have been alleged to be rape cultures. The notion of rape culture was developed alongside second-wave feminists , primarily in the United States, beginning in the s.
Critics of the concept dispute the existence or extent of rape culture, arguing that the concept is too narrow or that, although there are cultures where rape is pervasive, the idea of a rape culture can imply that the rapist is not at fault but rather the companionship that enables rape. The incumbency "rape culture" was first coined in the s in the United States by second-wave feminists , and was applied to contemporary American culture as a whole.
Previously, according to Canadian psychology professor Alexandra Rutherford Written, most Americans assumed that looting, incest, and wife-beating rarely happened. Rape was defined as a crime of violence rather than a crime of sex as it had been before and the focus of rape shifted from desire for sexual diversion to one of male tyranny, intimidation and a sense of control over gender norms.
The first published use of the term appears to have old hat in in Rape: Men, Women and Rape , was surrounded by the earliest to include first-person accounts of rape.
Their authors intended to demonstrate that plunder was a much more stereotypical crime than previously believed. Sociology professor Joyce E. Williams traces the origin and first currency of the term "rape culture"  to the documentary shoot Rape Culture , produced and directed by Margaret Lazarus and Renner Wunderlich for Cambridge Documentary Films.
She said that the film "takes credit for principal defining the concept". The shoot explored how mass media and popular culture have perpetuated attitudes towards rape.
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Culture of Indonesia
Category Portal Commons WikiProject changes. Cited in Roy, Shuker Moreover, Herder proposed a collective form of bildung: Retrieved 22 August Rape has also been used as a form of punishment in India as well extrajudicially.
Culture is considered a central concept in anthropology , encompassing the range of phenomena that are transmitted through social learning in human societies. Cultural universals are found in all human societies; these include expressive forms like art , music , dance , ritual , religion , and technologies like tool usage , cooking , shelter , and clothing. The concept of material culture covers the physical expressions of culture, such as technology, architecture and art, whereas the immaterial aspects of culture such as principles of social organization including practices of political organization and social institutions , mythology , philosophy , literature both written and oral , and science comprise the intangible cultural heritage of a society.
In the humanities , one sense of culture as an attribute of the individual has been the degree to which they have cultivated a particular level of sophistication in the arts , sciences, education , or manners.
The level of cultural sophistication has also sometimes been seen to distinguish civilizations from less complex societies. Such hierarchical perspectives on culture are also found in class-based distinctions between a high culture of the social elite and a low culture , popular culture , or folk culture of the lower classes, distinguished by the stratified access to cultural capital. In common parlance, culture is often used to refer specifically to the symbolic markers used by ethnic groups to distinguish themselves visibly from each other such as body modification , clothing or jewelry.
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The culture of Indonesia has been shaped by long interaction between original indigenous customs and multiple foreign influences. Indonesia is centrally-located along ancient trading routes between the Far East , South Asia and the Middle East , resulting in many cultural practices being strongly influenced by a multitude of religions , including Hinduism , Buddhism , Confucianism , Islam and Christianity , all strong in the major trading cities.
The result is a complex cultural mixture very different from the original indigenous cultures. Examples of the fusion of Islam with Hindu Javanese Abangan belief, the fusion of Hinduism, Buddhism and animism in Bodha , and the fusion of Hinduism and animism in Kaharingan ; others could be cited.
Balinese dances have stories about ancient Buddhist and Hindu kingdoms , while Islamic art forms and architecture are present in Sumatra, especially in the Minangkabau and Aceh regions. Traditional art, music and sport are combined in a martial art form called Pencak Silat. The Western world has influenced Indonesia in science, technology and modern entertainment such as television shows, film and music, as well as political system and issues.
India has notably influenced Indonesian songs and movies. A popular type of song is the Indian-rhythmical dangdut , which is often mixed with Arab and Malay folk music.
Despite the influences of foreign culture, some remote Indonesian regions still preserve uniquely indigenous culture. Indigenous ethnic groups Mentawai , Asmat , Dani , Dayak , Toraja and many others are still practising their ethnic rituals, customs and wearing traditional clothes. Indonesia is home to with those from the islands of Java , Sumatra and Bali being frequently recorded.
Promoted culture again called burst culture is generally recognized by pieces of a society as a attribute of the practices Proper, beliefs Disused, and objects that are dominant or ubiquitous in a company at a given brink in second. Popular savoir faire also encompasses the activities and conscience produced as a fruit of interaction with these dominant objects.
Heavily influenced in hip times by way of mass media , that collection of ideas permeates the unimaginative lives of people in a preordained society.
Ergo, popular background has a way of influencing an individual's attitudes towards established topics. The most commonplace pop-culture categories are: In culture is sometimes viewed by scads people as being trivial and "dumbed down" in order to find consensual acceptance from or to attract study amongst the mainstream.
As a aftermath, it flares under dry-as-dust criticism from various non-mainstream sources uttermost notably from religious suites and from countercultural classs which deem it external, consumerist Off limits, sensationalist Fine, or debased.
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The culture of Asia encompasses the collective and diverse customs and traditions of art, architecture, music, literature, lifestyle, aplomb, politics and doctrine that have pass� practiced and maintained by the numerous ethnic groups of the continent of Asia since prehistory.
Identification of a specific culture of Asia or worldwide elements among the colossal diversity that has emanated from multiple cultural spheres and three of the four antique River valley civilizations is complicated. Nevertheless, the continent is commonly divided into six geographic sub-regions, that are characterized by perceivable commonalities, like religion, lingo and relative ethnic homogeneity.
As the largest, most orifice continent and well-heeled in resources, Asia is home to several of the world's oldest civilizations, that produced the majority of the great religious systems, the oldest known recorded myths and codices on ethics and morality.
Nonetheless, Asia's enormous separates the divers civilizations by dedicated distances and combative environments, such as deserts and mountain ranges. Yet close challenging and overcoming these distances, swap and commerce step by step developed a yea universal, Pan-Asian eccentric.
Inter-regional trade was the driving and cohesive force, on which cultural elements and ideas spread to the heterogeneous sub-regions via the vast road network and the myriad sea routes. Asia's various modern cultural and religious spheres correspond roughly with the principal centres of civilisation. West Asia and Inside Asia have their cultural roots in the pioneering civilisations of the Plenteous Crescent and Mesopotamia.
Commercial interaction with South Asia finally lead to the adoption of material cultural elements from India and to a lesser amplitude from China.
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