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The pathways controlling cilium biogenesis in different cell types have not been fully elucidated. Here, we show that PAM is required for the normal assembly of motile and primary cilia in Chlamydomonas , planaria and mice. Chlamydomonas PAM knockdown lines failed to assemble cilia beyond the transition zone, had abnormal Golgi architecture and altered levels of cilia assembly components. Decreased PAM gene expression reduced motile ciliary density on the ventral surface of planaria and resulted in the appearance of cytosolic axonemes lacking a ciliary membrane.
Our data suggest that PAM activity and alterations in post-Golgi trafficking contribute to the observed ciliogenesis defects and provide an unanticipated, highly conserved link between PAM, amidation and ciliary assembly. Animal cells produce many small proteins known as peptides that help cells to communicate with each other. To become active, many of these peptides need to be chemically modified.
PAM is the only enzyme that carries out a type of peptide modification called amidation and it is essential for animals to grow and survive. PAM was originally thought to have evolved in the nervous system of animals, but recent studies have found that it is also present in green algae and in hair-like projections known as cilia, which are found on the surface of most animal cells.
There are two types of cilia: These observations suggest that PAM may have other roles in cells in addition to activating peptides. The results show that PAM is important for the formation of both motile and non-motile cilia.
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Do you need porn to masturbate?lyzed by a separable peptidyl-a-hydroxyglycine a-amidating lyase whose activity derives . aqueous phase was treated with Gene Clean (BiolOl, Inc.) according. The peptide amidating enzyme, peptidylglycine α-amidating .. Standards were visualized with ninhydrin spray, and samples were visualized..
Copper Cu , an essential trace element present throughout the mammalian nervous system, is crucial for normal synaptic function. Neuronal handling of Cu is poorly understood. Based on biochemical fractionation and immunostaining of dissociated neurons, Atp7a was enriched in postsynaptic vesicular fractions. As in cortex and hippocampus, Atp7a and PAM expression overlap in the amygdala, with highest expression in interneurons.
Cu, an essential trace element with diverse roles in biology, is known for its role as an obligate cofactor in oxidation-reduction reactions catalyzed by a dozen enzymes. These cuproenzymes play key roles in aerobic respiration, free radical detoxification, and neurotransmitter biosynthesis Andreini et al.
A much larger number of proteins are dedicated to the handling and transport of Cu Uriu-Adams and Keen Cu homeostasis from the cellular to the multi-organ level is not yet well understood, but it is clear that disruption leads to disease. Menkes disease OMIM , with mutations in ATP7A , causes Cu deficiency with grey kinky hair, frail skin, immune compromise, seizures and death before 3 years of age without treatment Kaler The severity of these conditions highlights the critical nature of maintaining tight control of Cu levels, especially in neuronal tissue.
As in other cell types, Atp7a trafficking in neurons is responsive to Cu Schlief et al.
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- A bioactive peptide amidating enzyme is required for ciliogenesis concentrating and cleaning with the Zymo Research RNA Clean and. Peptidylglycine alpha-amidating enzyme cleaner. PAM (Peptidyl-Gly alpha - amidating monooxygenase) is a dual-function, 95‑ kDa protein that belongs to both.
- The peptide amidating enzyme, peptidylglycine α-amidating .. Standards were visualized with ninhydrin spray, and samples were visualized. lyzed by a separable peptidyl-a-hydroxyglycine a-amidating lyase whose activity derives . aqueous phase was treated with Gene Clean (BiolOl, Inc.) according.
P-CIP2 is a highly selective kinase, phosphorylating the cytosolic domain of PAM, but not the corresponding region of furin or carboxypeptidase D. Although P-CIP2 interacts with stathmin, it does not phosphorylate stathmin. Site-directed mutagenesis, phosphoamino acid analysis, and use of man-made peptides demonstrate that PAM-Ser is the major site phosphorylated around P-CIP2. Based on both in vitro binding experiments and co-immunoprecipitation from cell extracts , P-CIP2 interacts with PAM proteins containing the wild type cytosolic area, but not with mutant forms of PAM whose trafficking is disrupted.
P-CIP2, through its strongly selective phosphorylation of a latchkey site in the cytosolic orbit of PAM, appears to wing it belittle a critical role in the trafficking of this protein. The targeting of membrane proteins desires sorting signals that govern the interaction of the membrane protein with the proper cytosolic proteins.
For integral membrane proteins targeted to trans -Golgi network TGN , 1 endosomes, lysosomes, or plasma membrane, a number of distinct and often overlapping motifs have been identified in the cytosolic domain
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A bioactive peptide amidating enzyme is required for ciliogenesis
DTU Chemistry Lecture by Professor Mario Amzel
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