Pages Home Publications Videos. Tuesday, 12 July A multidisciplinary view of pre-Columbian Amazonia.
Que son moxos yahoo dating multidisciplinary group of researchers working in Amazonia got together in Barcelona to discuss to what extent and in what way
Que son moxos yahoo dating populations changed the landscape of ancient Amazonia. Here you can
Que son moxos yahoo dating the talks that were given on the 8th of June.
Unfortunately, the first talk, given Que son moxos yahoo dating Marie-Pierre Ledru, was not recorded due Que son moxos yahoo dating technical problems. Posted by Umberto at Sunday, 17 August Fieldtrip to the Bolivian lowlands. In this post I am going to upload photos Que son moxos yahoo dating short comments about the ongoing fieldtrip to Beni, Bolivia, of the MSc students from the Institute of Geography at Bern University. The students arrived in Trinidad the 11th of August and will leave on the 21st.
Day 1 - 11th of August. Visit to the Museum Kenneth Lee in Trinidad. Laguna Suarez, about 5 km from Trinidad Day 8 - In the the morning visit to the Estancia La Chachra, where we learned about the extensive cattle ranching that is practiced in the Beni. We also went on a little safari. In this paper McMichael et al. The model predicts the likelihood of finding Terra Preta sites in any given spot within Amazonia. In general, I liked the Que son moxos yahoo dating behind the paper.
These models give us an objective basis for further research and discussions. It is thanks to this kind of work that we can go beyond subjective views about the extent of human impact in pre-Columbian Amazonia and start to formulate hypothesis that, through survey and measurement, can be later tested.
The first important result of this paper
Que son moxos yahoo dating that, given Que son moxos yahoo dating data available, we can now estimate that terra preta is likely to be found only in a 3. This is far less than other previous estimates Erickson, However, I find the discussion of McMichael et al.
The first is the meaning they give to the presence of terra preta; the second is the reasons they give to explain the absence terra preta outside of Brazil.
What is terra preta? Is it the result of permanent settlement where people cooked and dumped food remains for centuries, eventually causing the enrichment of the soil in with charcoal, phosphorous, organic matter and the rest of elements used to define terra preta?
Or is it the result of soil management techniques aimed at improving fertility and agricultural potential? However, this kind of interpretation Que son moxos yahoo dating terra preta being the result Pre-Columbian Que son moxos yahoo dating intensification has been challenged by many authors. Of course, we cannot exclude that pre-Columbians took advantage of the fertile terra preta for their gardens associated to Que son moxos yahoo dating homes; in the same way that they could have taken advantage of the fertility of pre-existing middens see Arroyo-Kalin, for a discussion on this.
But this does not mean that people intentionally created terra preta for agriculture! This leads us to my second concern: Here, McMichael et al. But, is it cultivating little gardens that large societies sustained themselves? I think the answer is no. In fact, pre-Columbians living in terra preta sites performed agriculture in the surrounding area, eventually forming terra mulata sites.
Terra mulata sites are far larger than terra preta ones. Terra mulata sites do not contain pottery and are far less fertile than terra preta ones, but still, they are richer in organic matter than the normal Amazonian oxisols more on this here. It is terra mulata that formed because of ancient agricultural use, not terra preta. The main problem face when tackling the question of terra preta is its definition. The definition that is generally
Que son moxos yahoo dating to terra preta coincides with the description of the geochemistry of a midden From Wikipedia: As a consequence of this, terra preta sites are now appearing everywhere We should also keep in mind that the whole terra preta concept is rooted in the context of the big surprise that the first researchers had when they found black organic sediments in
Que son moxos yahoo dating middle of Amazonian heavily weathered soils.
In fact, terra preta is often defined and mapped in the field in relation to the surrounding soil Fig. In my view, there is not much that actually differentiates terra preta from other occupation horizons elsewhere. I have seen several places in the Bolivian Amazon that, because Que son moxos yahoo dating the colour of the soil, concentrations of P, Ca, charcoal etc.
It is just that they are not called terra preta, yet: I think that the, otherwise excellent,
Que son moxos yahoo dating by McMichael at al. Or, even better, if they had used a database of pre-columbian occupations, including the archaeological sites known outside of Brazil.
This would have provided a more reliable tool for modelling pre-Columbian agriculture if a terra mulata database had been used or settlements patterns if a database of archaeological sites had been used within the Amazon basin; and for modelling pre-Columbian disturbance of the natural environment.
Tuesday, 3 September The rectangular and oriented lakes in the Bolivian Amazon are not tectonic, and now what? Our latest paper has been published a few days Que son moxos yahoo dating in Geomorphology. Evidence from the Bolivian Amazon Que son moxos yahoo dating. Here goes a very short version of it. The presence of hundreds of rectangular and oriented lakes is one of the most Que son moxos yahoo dating characteristics of the Llanos de Moxos landscape Fig.
Nevertheless, amid this diversity of hypothesis, the most commonly accepted cause of lake formation to date has been tectonics. If faulting is involved, the displacement should be visible and measurable through sediment profiling. The only element needed is a stratigraphic marker that allows the measurement of the vertical displacement.
Thanks to our recent discovery of a paleosol below mid-Holocene fluvial sediments in the south-eastern LM Lombardo et al. If lakes were formed by local subsidence induced Que son moxos yahoo dating bedrock faults, we should find the paleosol at a Que son moxos yahoo dating depth below the lake than in the area surrounding it.
Stratigraphic profiles from transects that cut across the borders of three lakes show otherwise Fig. Hence, tectonics, as the mechanism behind the formation of Que son moxos yahoo dating lakes, can be ruled out. The origin of the Moxos rectangular and oriented lakes is still very much unresolved.
Amazon BasinBeniLakes. It was included in the release of PLoS ONE and, once the embargo expired, we produced two other press Que son moxos yahoo dating see previous post. I am amazed by the interest that media from all around the world have shown! Plus, several people posted about our research in their blogs. Samples from the internet press of the last 2 days: Traces of the earliest inhabitants of Bolivian Amazonia hidden in plain sight.
Previously thought to be relict landforms cut away by shifting rivers, or long-term bird rookeries or termite mounds, these piles of freshwater snails, animal bones and charcoal are now known to have been built up over millennia, starting from at least 10, years ago, by ancient hunter-gatherers. Using novel approaches drawn from archaeology, geomorphology and geochemistry, an international team of researchers, led by Dr.
Umberto Lombardo of the University of Bern, has conducted detailed excavations of a large mound known locally as Isla del Tesoro Treasure Island. Distinctive chemical signatures of human presence were recorded at high levels throughout the mound sediments, and studies of the animal bones and shells indicate they are the remains of ancient human meals. Isla del Tesoro tells us that from over 10, years ago, hunter-gatherers were moving across the grasslands hunting a variety of mammals, catching fish and birds, and gathering large quantities of freshwater snails.
Over time, the refuse of these hunting and gathering forays built up forming mounds which sat elevated above the floodplain. It is highly likely that many more midden mounds lie buried beneath the metres of silts under the current savannah. Regularly flooded savannah landscapes such as those surrounding Isla del Tesoro have long been thought to be an inhospitable environment for early hunter gatherers.
The densities of animal prey are lower and less predictable than in coastal areas, near stable watercourses or forested areas where early South American archaeological sites are typically Que son moxos yahoo dating. Early and middle Holocene hunter-gatherer occupations in Western Amazonia: Online from 28 th August, 5.
ocultos revelan milenaria presencia humana en la Amazonia boliviana. Un equipo internacional de investigadores, dirigido por el Dr. The Hidden Shell Middens. Monday, 7 January The diffusion of unsuccessful innovations: Pre-Columbian raised field agriculture is an extremely Que son moxos yahoo dating topic that we have discussed in blog before, herehere and here. Raised fields have received a lot of attention in studies related to pre-Columbian demography.
They have been key in Que son moxos yahoo dating dense populations of complex societies to inhabit seasonally flooded regions of South America in pre-Columbian times.
Beyond their academic
Que son moxos yahoo dating, raised field agriculture has also become popular among rural development workers and aid agencies working with small farmers in South America. In their view, raised fields which are considered analogous to the Chinampa system in Mexico represent a promising pro-poor agricultural innovation which is more productive and sustainable than traditional agriculture which, in the neo tropics is, basically, slash and burn.
Que son moxos yahoo dating few days ago, Philippe C. It is a comment to a paper by Renard et al Renard et al. The main points that Baveye puts forwards are: Therefore, it cannot be assumed that the productivity of the South-American raised fields, which are very different from the Mexican Chinampas, was comparable to that of the Chinampas; and 3 the purpose of raised fields was limited to water management: We reach very conclusions in Lombardo et al.
It is important to highlight that none of the projects designed to reintroduce raised field agriculture among small farmers in Bolivia and Peru have ever worked actually, I am not aware of any successful rehabilitation anywhere in the Americas.
Local farmers have no idea or knowledge about this ancient practice: The picture below shows the current state of the raised fields built by Oxfam inamid an important media coverage and support for example, see this BBC article. In raised fields were also built in the northern Beni. You see the state of the fields during the summer photo below.
AgricultureArchaeologyRaised field agriculture. Excavating and analyzing a transect
Que son moxos yahoo dating 5 soil profiles along a paleo Grande River lavee-backswamp catena. Selecting the cows by size and checking if they are healthy.