They were buried together at Saqqara and are listed as "royal confidants" in their joint tomb. Khnumhotep and Niankhkhnum were ancient Egyptian royal servants and are believed by Thomas Dowson, Greg Reeder, and some other scholars to be the first recorded same-sex couple in history. Their official titles were "Overseers of the Manicurists of the Palace of the King" see sections Titularies, Banquents and music.
Critics argue that both men appear with their respective wives and children, suggesting the men were brothers, rather than Khnumhotep and niankhkhnum homosexuality. Khnumhotep and Niankhkhnum are depicted
Khnumhotep and niankhkhnum homosexuality the tomb with their respective families.
It has been proposed that they were the sons of Khabaw-khufu and Rewedzawes. They appear to have had three brothers named Titi, Nefernisut, and Kahersetef. Three possible sisters are also attested. They are named Neferhotep-hewetherew, Mehewet and Ptah-heseten. Niankhkhnum's wife was named Khentikawes. Khnumhotep and niankhkhnum homosexuality couple appear in the tomb with three sons
Khnumhotep and niankhkhnum homosexuality Hem-re, Qed-unas and Khnumhezewef, and three daughters, Hemet-re, Khewiten-re and Nebet.
Khnumhotep and niankhkhnum homosexuality niankhkhnum homosexuality one grandson is attested, Irin-akheti,
Khnumhotep and niankhkhnum homosexuality son of Hem-re and his wife, Tjeset. Khnumhotep had a wife by the name of Khenut. Khnumhotep and Khenut had at least five sons named Ptahshepses, Ptahneferkhu, Kaizebi, Khnumheswef and Niankhkhnum the younger possibly named after the tomb
Khnumhotep and niankhkhnum homosexualityas well as a daughter named Rewedzawes.
Egyptian tombs feature lists of titles and epithets honoring the deceased or held during life, often giving titles for other persons who appear on a wall, as in the funeral procession scene discussed in another section of this article.
Informing visitors merely a secondary purpose, Ipet in his 4th Dynasty Meidum tomb regards the hieroglyphs as "his gods;" the animal heads surmounting
Khnumhotep and niankhkhnum homosexuality gods' bodies were also readable as words.
Representative items empaneled here do not exhaust the set. These titles related to each man's job in the bureaucratic state, but more importantly, signified rank and power relative to other officials at court. The wab -priests, armed with brooms, handled cleanliness, ritual purity, and portage of offerings in areas of the temple outside the inner sanctuary where the god's cult statue was kept and where the higher, Hm nTr priests worked.
Translation of Egyptian terms varies considerably between authors: Faulkner's concise Khnumhotep and niankhkhnum homosexuality p. Ranier Hannig, from period sources, calls Khnumhotep and niankhkhnum homosexuality sHD an "Untervorsteher" subordinate official: Baud considers emerging local overlordships and subdivision of the bureaucracy in the Old
Khnumhotep and niankhkhnum homosexuality the primary phenomena responsible for titles pertaining to one occupational field.
Uncertainty increases when abstract concepts are at hand: Old Kingdom pyramids were named using constructions scholars haven't yet parsed completely, so that modern book translations only gloss the original meanings. For instance, to English-speaking ears, the near-synonyms "abide" and "endure" display a species difference within the genus of "things which survive a long time," the former more animate than the latter, yet both can be used to translate the word mn found in 5th and 6th Dynasty pyramid names.
We should note the two temples mentioned, the solar and the one beside the pyramid, are distinct, about a 1. Each 5th Dynasty pyramid furthermore came with two temple enclosures, a mortuary establishment in the shadow of the pyramid itself and a valley temple at the edge of the cultivated land, a causeway connecting these.
The solar temple had similar auxiliary structures. Suspicion that Nyuserrethe most prolific of the 5th-Dynasty monument builders,
Khnumhotep and niankhkhnum homosexuality his predecessor Neferirkare's valley temple and causeway for his own pyramid project arises, even in popular literature, as his causeway runs directly toward Neferirkare's pyramid a considerable distance before detouring, a thing no other causeway at Abusir does.
Observe that the 5th and most other Khnumhotep and niankhkhnum homosexuality dynasties in Egypt cover more than one family line.
The title Hrj sStA "keeper of the secrets" is attested for 13 individuals during the Old Kingdomat least once elaborated to the form Hr sStA mdw-nTr "keeper of the secrets of the god's words," meaning the hieroglyphic language used on monuments. Indeed, the 5th Dynasty marks the appearance in quantity of extended prose documents carrying legal force. The Pyramid Texts in prefatory stages of development during Nyuserre 's reign, then first inscribed in and around the burial chamber of King Unas reserved for royals only; a democratization of magic spells for the afterlife which would yield the Coffin Texts and Book of the Dead remained to come, although physical offering goods royal mortuary texts called for could be listed by name and icon in private tombs, and offering formulas for non-royal burials were available.
term "democratization" and the process attending it is a topic of research and controversy.
Khenu held the title Hrj sStA n Hwt wrt "chief of secrets in the great hut," the vizier's bureau. Epithets beginning with jmAx are common throughout Egyptian history from the 4th Dynasty on, : An official or family member could possess several, both jmAx xr nTr aA "honored before the great god" when Khnumhotep and niankhkhnum homosexuality : Szene 34 and jmAx xr nswt "honored before the king" presumably in life. Szenen 13 It is important to realize that king and themselves can be one and the same, especially upon death, as Amenemhat I would be in the early Middle Kingdom Khnumhotep and niankhkhnum homosexuality of Sinuhe.
If the efficacy of jmAx status in garnering support from the living world is unknown, the title holders were expected to confer favors in return, from the necropolis as beings in their afterlife corpora, denoted by the word Ax "akh" and perceived as effective against illness or through dreams.
Respects paid the Khnumhotep and niankhkhnum homosexuality were a crucial matter: Egyptians wrote letters to them, an activity which peaked during the Old and Middle Kingdoms. Kings chose Abydos while the dignitaries were buried at Saqqara, but not so in the 2nd, when royal burials at Saqqara alongside officials commenced. The tomb of Khnumhotep and Niankhkhnum was discovered by Egyptologist Ahmed Moussa in the necropolis at Saqqara, Egypt induring the excavation of the causeway for the pyramid of King Unas.
In addition, the men's chosen names both theophorics the creator-god Khnum form a linguistic reference to their closeness: Niankhkhnum means "life belongs to Khnum" and Khnumhotep means "Khnum is satisfied;"  both names honor the god of pottery, responsible for shaping the human body before Khnumhotep and niankhkhnum homosexuality birth, as in the midwife episode of Papyrus Westcar, where King Khufu's children are born.
Khnum, active in the Elephantine Island region the first Nile cataract, near modern Aswanwas also associated with the onset of the annual Nile inundation, especially during the early Dynastic period.
The precise king and date of this tomb are unknown; style places it in the latter 5th Dynasty under Nyuserre or Menkauhor. No human remains were discovered inside. This would have occurred as the two intended occupants gained resources. In a banquet scene treated in a later sectionNiankhkhnum and Khnumhotep are entertained by dancers, clappers, musicians and singers; in another, they oversee their funeral preparations.
In the most striking portrayal, the two embrace, noses touching, in the most intimate pose allowed Khnumhotep and niankhkhnum homosexuality canonical Egyptian surrounded by what would appear to be their heirs. The superstructure of their tomb. The Old Kingdom necropolis revolved around the king's pyramid complex : This rectangular monument is often 60 feet 18m or more on its long side and 15 feet 5m high, and erected directly over the burial site.
At Gizathese tombs formed a city of the dead, laid out on Khnumhotep and niankhkhnum homosexuality grid of streets and avenues, : Layout at Saqqara is similar but less regular. Maps of Saqqara and of Abusirthe Khnumhotep and niankhkhnum homosexuality of Nysurre's pyramid, are online at Rice University and at Tour Egypt, a brief overview at the latter. Khnumhotep and niankhkhnum homosexuality is called the palace serekh design.
The exterior has a batter angle like a fortress, the wall sloped back as it rises, except for the topmost course, which forms a vertical cornice.
Unfortunately, the artwork inside did not always fare as well. Some of the blocks were re-used in Unas' causeway and nearly all of them, whether Khnumhotep and niankhkhnum homosexuality from situ or not, suffered moisture and salt damage.
Preservation improves in the rock-cut section. Most of the reliefs are legible enough for line drawings to be made of them; allowing their texts and graphical data to come down to us. We Khnumhotep and niankhkhnum homosexuality inward from the tomb entrance as a visitor Khnumhotep and niankhkhnum homosexuality. The front is inscribed with Niankhkhnum depicted on the left, Khnumhotep on the right.
These two reliefs are virtually identical, only the names being different. This space is fairly small. The west side is decorated with a funerary procession for Niankhkhnum and the east side shows a matching funerary procession for Khnumhotep.
The uppermost Khnumhotep and niankhkhnum homosexuality wall shows the two men seated before an offering table. Niankhkhnum is seated on the right, while Khnumhotep is seated on the left. The table with offerings stretches out between them. Below
Khnumhotep and niankhkhnum homosexuality offering scene the two men are depicted netting fowl and fishing. On the left, below this lintel, Khnumhotep stands on a papyrus boat, spearing fish Khnumhotep and niankhkhnum homosexuality the water that floods the bases of papyrus stalks he drifts among.
He is accompanied by his wife Khenut, sons and a daughter. On the right, Niankhkhnum is depicted in a similar manner, aiming his throw stick at the waterfowl although the active arm is now missing from this piece.
The birds flush at the disturbance. He is accompanied by his wife Khentkawes, who was a priestess of Hathor, and sons and a daughter as Khnumhotep and niankhkhnum homosexuality. Note that the wives are sniffing lotus blossoms
Khnumhotep and niankhkhnum homosexuality they
Khnumhotep and niankhkhnum homosexuality their free arms upon the legs of their husbands.
This scene is a composite made by subtracting a doorway which actually stands between the two men's boats in the tomb; done here to save space. However, one might be tempted to read it as if the door weren't there; analogous Egyptian murals exist with no splitting of the scene into Khnumhotep and niankhkhnum homosexuality halves, often with the same person performing the fishing and fowling on both boats.
Egyptians would understand a convention that the person engaged in the two at consecutive times. Here, since two friends are present, they can be imagined doing it together.
The families come along for the outing, drawn at much smaller scales to show relative social status. Their names Khnumhotep and niankhkhnum homosexuality titles are written beside each.
At the entrance scenes of baking bread and brewing beer are depicted. Barley is
Khnumhotep and niankhkhnum homosexuality measured out and turned into bread.
Some of the bread is mixed with a date beverage and fermented to produce some type of beer. Other scenes include goat herding, ship building, harvesting scenes, sailing, netting of birds, etc. The east wall contains a legal text. Below this text several people are depicted thought to be the family of the two men.
At the very bottom ships are shown. The men are shown standing before the main cabin of the ship. An undecorated space which serves to connect the vestibule and chambers on the north end of the mastaba with the abutting rock-cut sections of the tomb to their south.
Modern security grates now obstruct much of the full sun that would have flooded this small, walled yard, yet little or no sun fell on the vestibule to the outer rock-cut hall described below, as its entrance faces Khnumhotep and niankhkhnum homosexuality. This should not be confused with the previously-mentioned vestibule at the public entrance; here we are arriving from an enclosed court.
With names, titles, and standing portraits of the two men, it is much smaller than the other vestibule and Khnumhotep and niankhkhnum homosexuality pillars. The lintel's inside surface Khnumhotep and niankhkhnum homosexuality another cattle count scene, and each tomb owner appears on one of the side walls with his wife, amid a flow of yet more offerings from the herds.
They were buried together at Saqqara and are listed as "royal confidants" in their seam tomb. Khnumhotep and Niankhkhnum were elderly Egyptian servants and are believed by Thomas Dowson, Greg Reeder, and some other scholars to be the first recorded same-sex several in record.
Their sanctioned titles were "Overseers of the Manicurists of the Palace of the King" see sections Titularies, Banquents and music. Critics disagree that both men part of with their respective wives and children, suggesting the men were brothers, more than lovers.
Khnumhotep and Niankhkhnum are depicted in the catacomb with their respective families. It has been proposed that they were the sons of Khabaw-khufu and Rewedzawes. They appear to have had three brothers named Titi, Nefernisut, and Kahersetef. Three possible sisters are to boot attested. They are named Neferhotep-hewetherew, Mehewet and Ptah-heseten.
Niankhkhnum's helpmeet was named Khentikawes. The couple arise in the tomb with three sons named Hem-re, Qed-unas and Khnumhezewef, and three daughters, Hemet-re, Khewiten-re and Nebet.
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Time to wise up?Tomb of two Egyptians Niankhkhnum and Khnumhotep stirs Another is that the men had a homosexual relationship, a more recent view that. Egyptian manicurists become homosexual icons Reeder said Niankhkhnum and Khnumhotep adopted poses usually restricted to husbands..
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